Following his route of a second Continental Army at Camden in August 1780, British General Lord Cornwallis paused with his army in the Waxhaws region of northern South Carolina. During the night, Johnston retreated across the bridge at Bentonville. This became an issue of taxation without representation. The Historic Park In South Carolina That Was A Deadly Battleground During The Revolutionary War. Dozens of skirmishes were fought in South Carolina during the Revolutionary War. Sherman got himself into political hot water by offering terms of surrender to Johnston that encompassed political issues as well as military, without authorization from General Grant or the United States government. ISBN 0-8117-0578-1. From the site of the first battle of the Revolutionary War in South Carolina to the monuments and gravesites of patriots who gave their lives, these are 10 historic sites everyone should see. Pursuant to the British "southern strategy" for winning the American Revolutionary War, British forces had captured Charleston, South Carolina early in 1780, and had driven Continental Army forces from South Carolina. Johnston had increased his forces to about 21,000 men by absorbing the troops under Bragg, who had abandoned Wilmington. The Sugar Act This act increased taxes on sugar. Cornwallis' left flank, commanded by Patrick Ferguson, was virtually destroyed in early October at Kings Mountain, and Cornwallis eventually withdrew to Winnsboro, South Carolina in November on reports of persistent Patriot militia activity in South Carolina. The Union division under Maj. Gen. Francis P. Blair (Howard's army) crossed the river and assaulted McLaws' flank. The Revolutionary War in SC: 10 Best Sites. For non-residents of NC you can print out the request form and send it via the US Postal Service. Union forces pursued at first light, driving back Wheeler's rearguard and saving the bridge. Tarleton's army, after exhaustive marching, reached the field malnourished and heavily fatigued. Tensions simmered through the 1770s while the British Army continued to focus on the war in New England. Sherman's opponents on the Confederate side had considerably fewer men. Instead of advancing on Hillsboro, Cornwallis occupied Charlotte. Late afternoon, Johnston attacked, crushing the line of the XIV Corps. Tarleton attacked immediately; however, the American defence-in-depth absorbed the impact of the British attack. On April 18, three days after the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, Johnston signed an armistice with Sherman at Bennett Place, a farmhouse near Durham Station. With Union reinforcements on the way, the Confederates withdrew. [8][6], Mark Boatner says the British incurred 15 casualties in the engagement. Union forces were overwhelmed by throngs of liberated Federal prisoners and emancipated slaves. Sherman was inclined to let Johnston retreat. People sometimes get so caught up in South Carolina's Civil War history that they overlook the pivotal role the state played in the American Revolution. Oct 30, 1775. Battles of the Revolutionary War: 1775. Cowpens National Battlefield preserves the ground over which Morgan arrayed his militia in a line in front of his Continental Army regulars, asking the militia to fire on the advancing British and then retire behind the veteran … March 2, 2020 February 25, 2020. Bragg withdrew across the Neuse River and was unable to prevent the fall of Kinston on March 14. The southern facade of the courthouse had a series of pillars, between which a stone wall about 3.5 feet (1.1 m) high had been constructed to provide an area that served as the local market. Hanger went down with a wound, and his cavalry retreated in some disarray back to the Legion's infantry. South Carolina Revolutionary War Battles: The Carolina Low Country, April 1775-June 1776 and the Battle of Fort Moultrie | Lipscomb, Terry W. | ISBN: 9781880067253 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Cornwallis' movements were shadowed by militia companies from North and South Carolina. Elements of the XX Corps were thrown into the action as they arrived on the field. Sherman was particularly interested in targeting South Carolina, as the first state to secede from the Union, for the effect it would have on Southern morale. The first major battle centered around British efforts to seize Charlestown in June of 1776, when the Patriots held off the combined land and sea forces at the battle of Fort Moultrie and associated Breech Inlet Naval Battle. Late afternoon, the Union XIV Corps began to arrive on the field but was unable to deploy before dark because of the swampy ground. Buchanan, John, The Road to Guilford Courthouse: The American Revolution in the Carolinas (1999) Cann, Marvin (October 1975). In defense, Loyalist militia organized and the towns were … The primary force in the Carolinas was the battered Army of Tennessee, again under the command of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston (who had been relieved of duty by Confederate President Jefferson Davis during the Atlanta Campaign against Sherman and restored after John Bell Hood led a disastrous invasion of Tennessee). Davie surprised a detachment of Cornwallis' Loyalist forces at Wahab's Plantation on September 20, and then moved on to Charlotte, where he set up an ambush to harass Cornwallis' vanguard. Bicheno, H: Rebels and Redcoats: The American Revolutionary War, London, 2003; Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. On February 18, Sherman's forces destroyed virtually anything of military value in Columbia, including railroad depots, warehouses, arsenals, and machine shops. Battle of Lexington: April 19, 1775Paul Revere’s ride warned of the British coming to Lexington and Concord. Only strong counterattacks and desperate fighting south of the Goldsborough Road blunted the Confederate offensive. The following battles were fought in the Carolinas Campaign. Sep 1, 1775. On the evening of March 9, two of Kilpatrick's brigades encamped near the Charles Monroe House in Cumberland (now Hoke) County. McLaws withdrew to Branchville, causing only one day's delay in the Union advance.[2]. The American Revolutionary War was a conflict between Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in North America which lasted for more than 8 years from April 19, 1775 to September 3, 1783.The people in the American colonies were themselves divided into two groups: the Patriots, who fought the British for independence; and the Loyalists who wanted a continuation of British rule. The Colonial forces conducted a double envelopment of Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton's force, and suffered casualties of only 12 killed and 61 wounded. [3], As Sherman's army advanced into North Carolina, Maj. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick's Cavalry Division screened its left flank. North Carolinians reacted strongly to British taxation and reorganization schemes introduced in 1763. In mid-September he began moving north toward Charlotte, North Carolina. Major General Nathanael Greene and his army of almost 4,500 American militia and Continentals were defeated by a smaller British army of about 1,900 soldiers led by Lord Charles Cornwallis. [8], Cornwallis, alerted by the sound of battle, rode forward to assess the situation. The Battle of King’s Mountain in South Carolina was fought between a Patriot militia against the Loyalist army in the Southern Campaign of the Revolutionary War. The Battle of Charlotte was an American Revolutionary War battle fought in Charlotte, North Carolina on September 26, 1780. ... My small force is melting away like snow before the sun. After initial success, their attacks stalled because of faulty communications. On March 21, however, Johnston remained in position while he removed his wounded. Even after the 20 men behind the house opened fire, Hanger's men continued to ride on until he was met by heavy fire from the line of militia behind the stone wall. Sherman had bigger things in mind. One force under Thomas Sumter stayed back and harassed British and Loyalist outposts in the South Carolina backcountry, while another, led by Major William R. Davie, maintained fairly close contact with portions of his force as Cornwallis moved northward. Lexington, MA: 19 April 1775: First shots fired in the Revolution. As with his Georgia operations, Sherman marched his armies in multiple directions simultaneously, confusing the scattered Confederate defenders as to his first true objective, which was the state capital of Columbia, South Carolina. North Carolina residents may make a request by e-mail for Rev. The army was organized into three corps, commanded by Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee, Lt. Gen. Alexander P. Stewart, and Lt. Gen. Stephen D. Lee. [a] On January 1, Union Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman advanced north from Savannah, Georgia, through the Carolinas, with the intention of linking up with Union forces in Virginia. War pay vouchers and/or accounts by going to the North Carolina State Archives and filling out a request form. Reinforcements arrived regularly during his march north, and by April 1 he commanded 88,948 men after the Army of the Ohio under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield joined up at Goldsboro, NC.[1]. The Confederate division of Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws attempted to prevent the crossing of the Salkehatchie River by the right wing of Sherman's army. Sarcastically calling out "you have everything to lose, but nothing to gain", the earl ordered the legion forward once more. [8] Hanger then also fell ill, further disabling the effectiveness of Tarleton's Legion. New York: McKay, 1966; revised 1974. Well over 400 land engagements (battles and skirmishes) took place in South Carolina during the war for independence. It was the virtual end for the Confederacy, although some smaller forces held out, particularly in the Trans-Mississippi region, into the summer. The Revolutionary War and North Carolina's Role Timeline created by aaronbrown1. [7], Contrary to Cornwallis' orders, Hanger and his cavalry blithely galloped into town. During the War for Independence, the opposing sides in North Carolina took on the names of English Parliamentary parties. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. It became a site of increased fighting a few years into the battle. This, the first engagement outside of New England, brought a national character to the burgeoning revolution. The Federals regrouped and counterattacked, regaining their artillery and camps after a desperate fight. Nothing but Blood and Slaughter: Military Operations and Order of Battle of the Revolutionary War in the Carolinas - Volume One 1771-1779 I actually laughed out loud at some of the things he wrote. It was the second significant surrender that month. Throughout the course of the American Revolutionary War, over 200 battles were fought within South Carolina, more than in any other state.On November 19, 1775, Patriot forces of the Long Cane Militia fought Loyalists in the first battle of Ninety Six, resulting in the death of James Birmingham, the first South Carolinian and southerner of the war.. North Carolina and the American Revolution. 600 Loyalists commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George Turnbull occupying an outpost in northern South Carolina withstood an attack by 300 American Patriots led by Colonel Thomas Sumter For more than a decade before the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775, tensions had been building between colonists and the British authorities. The Battle of Alamance, which took place on May 16, 1771, was the final battle of the War of the Regulation, a rebellion in colonial North Carolina over issues of taxation and local control, considered by some to be the opening salvo of the American Revolution. When Joseph E. Johnston met with Jefferson Davis in Greensboro on April 12–13, he told the Confederate president: Our people are tired of the war, feel themselves whipped, and will not fight. On March 20, Slocum was heavily reinforced, but fighting was sporadic. Many soldiers took advantage of ample supplies of liquor in the city and began to drink. The defeat of Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army at the Battle of Bentonville, … The Battle of Charlotte was an American Revolutionary War battle fought in Charlotte, North Carolina on September 26, 1780. He predicted on January 5, 1865: "I do think that in the several grand epochs of this war, my name will have a prominent part." *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The descriptions of the different ethnic groups in the area was very interesting. Schofield planned to advance inland from Wilmington, NC, in February. James Birmingham becomes the first South Carolina Patriot killed in the Revolution. This battle took place entirely in South Carolina. [3] Patrick O'Kelley says that they had nobody killed but 33 wounded. [7] Cornwallis ordered Hanger to cautiously enter the town and check for militia, which he expected to be in the area. The following year in the spring of 1776, the British quickly moved into the South Carolina backcountry and established regional strategic bases at Camden and Ninety Six. Sherman, after regrouping at Goldsboro, pursued Johnston toward Raleigh.[6]. The Campaign of the Carolinas (January 1 – April 26, 1865), also known as the Carolinas Campaign, was the final campaign conducted by the United States Army (Union Army) against the Confederate States Army in the Western Theater. Apr 5, 1764. Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U.S. Confederate States presidential election of 1861, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Campaign_of_the_Carolinas&oldid=997301609, Campaigns of the Western Theater of the American Civil War, Military operations of the American Civil War in North Carolina, Military operations of the American Civil War in South Carolina, Strategic operations of the Union army in the American Civil War, Union victories of the American Civil War, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. However, Tarleton was ill, so Cornwallis gave the assignment to Tarleton's subordinate, Major George Hanger, an impetuous young Englishman from an aristocratic family. August 18 or 19, 1780 at Musgrove's Mill, Union and Laurens County border, South Carolina Battle Summary The Battle of Musgrove Mill occurred near a ford of the Enoree River, near the present-day border between Spartanburg, Laurens and Union Counties in South Carolina. In November of 1775, the first land battle south of New England took place at Ninety Six. The Olde English District, so named because the region was settled by the English in the 1770s, is home to many of the state's key Revolutionary battles from Camden to Brattonsville. Sherman's Carolina Campaign, in which his troops marched 425 miles (684 km) in 50 days, was similar to his march to the sea through Georgia, although physically more demanding. Five Confederate attacks failed to dislodge the Federal defenders, and darkness ended the first day's fighting. [5] The Patriot casualties are given by O' Kelley as 5 killed, 6 wounded and 12 captured[2] and by Boatner as 30 killed, wounded or captured.[3]. On March 8, the Confederates attempted to seize the initiative by attacking the Union flanks. The burning of Columbia has engendered controversy ever since, with some claiming the fires were accidental, others stating they were a deliberate act of vengeance as in Atlanta, and others claiming that the fires were set by retreating Confederate soldiers who lit bales of cotton on their way out of town. On March 15 th, 1781, the deciding battle of the Revolutionary War's Southern Campaign was fought at the small North Carolina town (really just an intersection) of Guilford Courthouse. Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War; Battles (in chronological … The Regiment The First North Carolina Regiment was raised. The battle took place at the Mecklenburg County Court House; which is now the site of the Bank of America tower at Trade and Tryon Streets in downtown Charlotte. His strength was recorded in mid-March at 9,513 and 15,188 by mid-April. Moore, Mark A., with Jessica A. Bandel and Michael Hill. “The shot heard ’round the world.” On April 14, 1959, Congress recognized the importance of Lexington and Concord by creating Minute Man National Historical Park. The Loyalists under Major Patrick Ferguson were unwilling to surrender after the attack by the Patriot militia led by Colonel William Campbell. The colonist were paying more money for these goods so the British Army could have what they needed. Tarleton was one of around 160 British troops to escape. A skirmish ensued in which George Hanger, lea… After Sherman captured Savannah, the culmination of his 'March to the Sea', he was ordered by Union Army general-in-chief Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to embark his army on ships to reinforce the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the James in Virginia, where Grant was bogged down in the Siege of Petersburg against Confederate General Robert E. Lee. At dawn, March 16, the Federals advanced on a division front, driving back skirmishers, but they were stopped by the main Confederate line and a counterattack. Revolutionary War Timeline. The "Whigs" were the Patriots and the "Tories" were the Loyalists. Soon, the Liberty Trail will create a unified path of preservation and interpretation across South Carolina, telling this remarkable story. He persuaded Grant that he should march north through the Carolinas instead, destroying everything of military value along the way, similar to his 'March to the Sea' through Georgia. An advance guard of General Charles Cornwallis' army rode into town and encountered a well-prepared Patriot militia under the command of William R. Davie in front of the court house. On March 7, Cox's advance was stopped by divisions under Gen. Braxton Bragg's command at Southwest Creek south of Kinston, North Carolina. Nothing but Blood and Slaughter: Military Operations and Order of Battle of the Revolutionary War in the Carolinas - Volume One 1771-1779 [O'Kelley, Patrick] on Amazon.com. The defeat of Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army at the Battle of Bentonville, and its unconditional surrender to Union forces on April 26, 1865, effectively ended the American Civil War. They point to the involvement of some Regulators on the revolutionary side in the War of Independence (1775–1783) and the role of some of the Regulators’ enemies, such as Edmund Fanning, a North Carolina lawyer, on the loyalist side. Sherman's plan was to bypass the minor Confederate troop concentrations at Augusta, Georgia, and Charleston, South Carolina, and reach Goldsboro, North Carolina, by March 15. On April 9, Robert E. Lee had surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House. [4], On the afternoon of March 15, Kilpatrick's cavalry came up against Hardee's corps deployed across the Raleigh Road near Smithville. John Buchanan adds many interesting anecdotes to the battle stories. However, the Confederate forces opposing him were much smaller and more dispirited. The Battle of Stono Ferry was an American Revolutionary War battle, fought on June 20, 1779, near Charleston, South Carolina.The rear guard from a British expedition retreating from an aborted attempt to take Charleston held off an assault by poorly trained militia … [6], Charlotte was then a small town, with two main roads crossing at the town center, where the Mecklenburg County courthouse dominated the intersection. Confederate counterattacks stopped Mower's advance, saving the army's only line of communication and retreat. On February 17, Columbia, SC, surrendered to Sherman, and Hampton's cavalry retreated from the city. In November 1775, Whig and Loyalist militia clashed in a three day battle for control of the town that culminated in an uneasy truce. Finally, he put a company of 20 men behind a house on the southern road, where he was expecting the British advance. [1], As his column approached Charlotte, Cornwallis would normally have sent Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton and his British Legion to investigate the town. For the campaign of the American Revolutionary War, see, Military campaign during the American Civil War, Although the campaign took place entirely in states on the, Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War, Western Theater of the American Civil War, Official website of the Bennett Place State Historic Site, Works by or about Campaign of the Carolinas, List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials, List of memorials to the Grand Army of the Republic, List of Confederate monuments and memorials, Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials. This brought him into a withering crossfire from the second line and the cavalry companies stationed to the east and west. Mower withdrew, ending fighting for the day. The book covers the Revolutionary War in the Carolinas 1780-81. This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 22:17. It was a turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from the British. Today, the Battle of Williamson’s Plantation is preserved within Historic Brattonsville, a living history museum interpreting life in the Carolina Backcountry from the mid-1700’s to the mid-1800’s. Hardee retreated during the night after holding up the Union advance for nearly two days. A second British assault failed in 1779, but a third attempt on Charlestown in … An advance guard of General Charles Cornwallis' army rode into town and encountered a well-prepared Patriot militia under the command of William R. Davie in front of the court house. Mid-morning, the Federals renewed their advance with strong reinforcements and drove the Confederates from two lines of works, but they were repulsed at a third line. On February 22, Wilmington, NC surrendered. On January 1, Union Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman advanced north from Savannah, Georgia, through the Carolinas, with the intention of linking up with Union forces in Virginia. General Henry Clinton’s strategy was to march troops from St. Augustine, Florida, and trap George Washington in the North. Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War, route of a second Continental Army at Camden, Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, North Carolina Blumenthal Performing Arts Center, Johnson C. Smith Golden Bulls and Lady Golden Bulls, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Charlotte&oldid=980079711, Battles of the American Revolutionary War in North Carolina, Battles in the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War 1780–1783, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 September 2020, at 13:47. Our country is overrun, its military resources greatly diminished, while the enemy's military power and resources were never greater and may be increased to any extent desired. Sherman's army commenced toward Columbia, South Carolina, in late January 1865. Believing British and Loyalist forces to be in control of Georgia and South Carolina, he decided to turn north and address the threat posed by the Continental Army remnants in North Carolina. The battle took place at the Mecklenburg County Court House; which is now the site of the Bank of America tower at Trade and Tryon Streets in downtown Charlotte. The confusion on this issue lasted until April 26, when Johnston agreed to purely military terms and formally surrendered his army and all Confederate forces in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida. In History. [1] When the first militia line maneuvered to make way for the second, Hanger misinterpreted their movement as retreat, and continued the charge. In the afternoon, Maj. Gen. Joseph Mower led his Union division along a narrow trace that carried it across Mill Creek into Johnston's rear. Skirmishing heated up along the entire front. The Battle of Rocky Mount took place on August 1, 1780 as part of the American Revolutionary War. Battles; People. The battle was an emphatic victory for the Patriot militia and one of the bloodiest battles in the war. Read More After feeling out the Confederate defenses, Kilpatrick withdrew and called for infantry support. On March 9, the Union forces were reinforced and beat back Bragg's renewed attacks on March 10 after heavy fighting. [1] Davie positioned three rows of militia at and north of the courthouse, with one behind the stone wall, and placed cavalry companies on the east and west sides of the courthouse, covering the roads leading away in those directions. Period: ... One of the fiercest battles of the American Revolution took place north of Boston. The French and Indian War, or Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), brought new territories under the power of the crown, but the expensive conflict lead to new and unpopular taxes. 1775. At the same time, he assigned Maj. Gen. Jacob D. Cox to direct Union forces from New Bern toward Goldsboro. I never realized that far more battles occurred in the Carolinas than in the Northeast. The Battle of Cowpens (January 17, 1781) was a decisive victory by the Continental Army forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War over the British Army led by Colonel Banastre Tarleton. The Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts drew the growing radical element's ire in particular and led to the emergence of a Sons of Liberty group. [5], While Slocum's advance was stalled at Averasborough by Hardee's troops, the right wing of Sherman's army under Howard marched toward Goldsboro. However, brutal tactics … Aside from the failed attempt at a colony in Roanoke, the French and Spanish had also failed in claiming the coast where the Carolinas would be established. [4] John S. Pancake says that they had 12 killed and 47 wounded. In History. The small Patriot force, which had not intended more than token resistance, withdrew north toward Salisbury upon the arrival of Cornwallis and the main army. Historic Brattonsville is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Daniel Morgan defeated the dreaded British commander Banastre Tarleton at Cowpens, South Carolina, in a battle that is widely regarded as the tactical masterpiece of the Revolutionary War. This battle was known as the Battle of Bunker Hill. Hanger termed the incident "a trifling insignificant skirmish", but it did clearly communicate to Cornwallis that he would have to expect further resistance. During the night, Johnston contracted his line into a "V" to protect his flanks, with Mill Creek to his rear. A skirmish ensued in which George Hanger, leading the British cavalry, was wounded. Tory forces were defeated in the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge in February of 1776, the first military action in North Carolina and the last for over four years. The Campaign of the Carolinas, also known as the Carolinas Campaign, was the final campaign conducted by the United States Army against the Confederate States Army in the Western Theater. During the night, four divisions of the XX Corps arrived to confront the Confederates. The Bri… The British strategy was to mobilize loyalist Carolinians, who made up fifty percent of the colony’s population. The Battle of Cowpens was part of the campaign in the Carolinas (North and South). [8] His position was never entirely secure, because the Patriot militia interfered with any significant attempts to communicate with the countryside. Fires began in the city, and high winds spread the flames across a wide area. Concord, MA: 19 April 1775: American militia defeated British regulars. [8] By this time the main army's light infantry had also begun to arrive, and Davie withdrew his forces. Most of the central city was destroyed, and the city's fire companies found it difficult to operate in conjunction with the invading Union army, many of whom were also trying to put out the fire. Federal pursuit was halted at Hannah's Creek after a severe skirmish. Generals; Women; Spies; Famous Americans; Soldiers; Misc. On that same day, the Confederates evacuated Charleston. South Carolina during the Revolutionary War Timeline created by MeghanW. Also in the Carolinas were cavalry forces from the division of Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton and a small number in Wilmington, North Carolina, under Gen. Braxton Bragg. Early on March 10, Hampton's Confederate cavalry surprised the Federals in their camps, driving them back in confusion and capturing wagons and artillery. Mar 22, 1765. His 60,079 men were divided into two wings: the Army of the Tennessee, and two corps, the XIV and XX, under Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum, which was later formally designated the Army of Georgia. Revolutionary War Guns ; Slavery and the Revolutionary War; Slavery and the Founding Fathers; North and South Carolina Colony. Many historians consider the Revolutionary War to have been decided in the swamps, fields, woods and mountains of the South, won by the resilience and determination of Continental soldiers and Patriot militia. On March 19, Slocum encountered the entrenched Confederates of Gen. Joseph E. 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Last edited on 30 December 2020, at 22:17 request by e-mail for.... The way, the first South Carolina, telling this remarkable story the attack by the militia. Late afternoon, Johnston contracted his line into a withering crossfire from the British cavalry, was.... Colony ’ s strategy was to March troops from St. Augustine, Florida, high! 12 killed and 47 wounded withdrew to Branchville, causing only one day delay... This battle was known as the battle: American militia defeated British regulars is listed on the Road... Send it via the US Postal Service for Independence, the earl ordered the Legion 's infantry moving... Johnston attacked, crushing the line of communication and retreat army continued to on! P. Blair ( Howard 's army commenced toward Columbia, South Carolina of faulty communications dislodge the Federal defenders and. His flanks, with Mill Creek to his rear in late January 1865 in. Battles in the Carolinas Campaign his strength was recorded in mid-March at 9,513 15,188! 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