(e) Addition reaction, Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:267, Question 73: Question.27 Draw the structure of butanone molecule, CH 3 COC 2 H 5. (a) Write the name and formula of an organic compound containing a ketone functional group. If bubbles (or effervescence) of hydrogen gas are produced, it indicates that the given organic liquid is an alcohol. (ii) CnH2n Sodium hydrogencarbonate can be used to distinguish between ethanol and ethanoic acid. n-butane and iso-butane. of the different arrangements of carbon atoms in them. Draw the electron-dot structure of a hydrogen chloride molecule: asked Aug 13, 2019 in Class X Science by muskan15 ( … (a) What are materials, X, Y and Z ? (c) Ethylbromide Answer: (a) 2, 8, 7. (ii) Butanone, Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:240, Question 10: C3H4, Question 66: (f) Which three formulae can represent cyclic hydrocarbons ? (i) Alkyne (a) The atomic number of chlorine is 17. Why ? Name two oxidising agents which can oxidise ethanol to ethanoic acid. Solution : (b) Write (i) structural formula, and (ii) electron-dot structure, of any one isomer of n-heptane (C7H16) (a) Give the molecular formula of one homologue of each of the following : Also write chemical equation of the reaction which takes place. (b) Ethanoic acid – Acetic acid. Solution : Solution : Question 14: (i) It is used in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, lacquers, medicines, perfumes, dyes, soaps and synthetic rubber. (b) (i) Aldehyde group How is it related to diamond and graphite ? (b) What is saponification ? (a) X is butanol, C4H9OH Solution : Only valence electrons. A soft material Y is also used as a fuel in the form of candles. (c) Addition reactions are a characteristic of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Solution : Question 70: Each carbon atom in the diamond crystal is linked to four other carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds. Solution : Question 49: (a) A compound made up of hydrogen and carbon only is called a hydrocarbon (Hydrogen + Carbon= Hydrocarbon). (c) Explain the cleansing action of soap. Three organic compounds A, B and C have the following molecular formulae : (ii) X (coal) An allotrope C of this element is used in glass cutters. Solution : (a) Write names and formulae of hydrocarbons containing a single and a double bond (one example for each). (b) Red litmus paper turns blue in soap solution and no change occurs on blue litmus paper because soap is basic in nature. Reaction: 5. Write chemical equation of the reaction involved. (a) Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH gives brisk effervescence with sodium hydrogencarbonate. (c) What will you observe when dilute ethanoic acid and dilute hydrochloric acid are put on universal indicator paper, one by one ? Name the element whose allotropic form is graphite. Question 11: C5H10 ; C3H8; C6H10; C4H10; C7H12; C8H16 Describe an activity with the help of a labelled diagram of the apparatus used to prove that the evolved gas is the one which you have named. Solution : (c) Allotrope B: Graphite Solution : Solution : Write the formula of the organic compound. Write the electron-dot structures for : (i) ethane, (ii) ethene, and (iii) ethyne. Draw the Lewis dot structure for the formation of water molecule. (ii) It leads to the formation of an extremely poisonous gas called carbon monoxide. Which of the following molecule is called buckminsterfullerene ? Question 29: (k) Ethene Lewis structure of ethane. Come from this bond is the compound formation and progressing toward more … (c) Alkene, CnH2n The isomer A is a liquid which is used as a solvent for nail polish. Would you be able to check whether water is hard by using a detergent ? (i) HCHO (ii) CH3CHO (Hi) CH3CH2CHO (iv) CH3CH2CH2CHO Question 45: Question 7: (a) What is element A ? Match. (c) Why is graphite used for making dry cell electrodes but diamond is not ? (a) Activity: (b) Harmful effects of drinking alcohol: (c) Which molecular formula can represent an aldehyde as well as a ketone ? (iii) C3H4 (b) The molecular Compound X reacts with Y on warming in the presence of cone. Solution : Question 15: Write the molecular formula of the following compounds and draw their electron-dot structures : (Foreign 2015) (i) Ethane (ii) Ethene (iii) Ethyne Answer: Question 25. (i) Propanone Fill in the following blanks with suitable words : Solution : Question 34: Solution : Question 60: Question 48: (a) Which compound contains an alcohol group ? Example: Sodium stearate, C17H35COO–Na+ Y is ethanoic acid (a) Carbon forms a large number of carbon compounds because carbon atoms can link with one another by means of covalent bonds to form long chains of carbon atoms. (ii) in terms of number and kind of atoms per molecule ? Will the current flow through the electrical circuit when we use the sharpened ends of the pencil to complete the circuit ? HCHO, CH3COOH, CH3OH, C2H5OH, HCOOH, CH3CHO Give reasons for your choice. When soap is at the surface of water, the hydrophobic ‘tail’ of soap will not be soluble in water and the soap will align along the surface of water with the ionic end in water and the hydrocarbon ‘tail’ protruding out of water. (a) The process of burning of a hydrocarbon in the presence of air to give CO2, H2O, heat and light is known as……… MEDIUM. Solution : (b) What happens when ethanol is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 170°C ? Write down (i) structural formula, and (ii) electron-dot formula, of any one isomer of hexane (C6H14), other than n-hexane. (d) Alkanes: CH4, C2H6, C4H10? Chloromethane – CH3Cl and methanol – CH3OH, Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:242, Question 39: (c) Saturated cyclic hydrocarbon: Cyclohexane, C6H12 (a) What would be observed on adding a 5% alkaline potassium permanganate solution drop by drop to (b) (i) Acetylene Draw diagrams to illustrate your answer. CH3OH (c) What is compound Z ? (a) What is graphite ? (c) Write the molecular formulae of the third and fifth members of homologous series of carbon compounds represented by the general formula CnH2n+2. Name the salt X and gas Y. Give reason for your observation. (a) A soap is the sodium salt (or potassium salt) of a long chain carboxylic acid (fatty acid) which has cleansing properties in water. pressure and temperature. This property of self combination is useful to us because it gives rise to an extremely large number of carbon compounds (or organic compounds). H2S04 to form an ester. (b) A diamond crystal is a giant molecule of carbon atoms. H2S04 at 170°C forms an alkene ? When compounds X and Y are heated together in the presence of a little of concentrated sulphuric acid, then a new compound Z is formed. Question 13: (e) C7H14; Vapours having sweet smell (fruity smell) are evolved. (c) What is the IUPAC name of acetic acid ? (a) C4H9COOC2H5; Ester Solution : It is made up of carbon. (b) Fuels which do not vaporise on heating, burn without a flame. Solution : Question 28: (c) Draw the structure for bromopentane. The tendency of main group atoms to form enough bonds to obtain eight valence electrons is known as the octet rule. Graphite is used for making pencil cores or ‘pencil leads’. Solution : These are organic acids. Give the name and formula of the ester formed. Expert Answer . Solution : We can also represent the formula as a Lewis dot structure which shows us the distribution of atoms and electrons … Give the name and formula of the compound formed : A C4H8O2 Question 33: Catenation(Self linking of carbon atoms to form long chains) and Tetravalency. Question 24: Solution : CH3OH While cooking, if the bottom of the vessel is getting blackened on the outside, it means that: https://www.zigya.com/share/U0NFTjEwMTExODA5. Describe one reaction of a carboxylic acid. (a) ethanol into ethene ? (c) Due to the presence of free electrons in a graphite crystal, it conducts electricity however; a diamond crystal does not have free electrons so it does not conduct electricity. Answer: Explanation: 99. (a) (i) CnH2n+2 Which of the following is the correct electron dot structure for chlorine (atomic no. They are also known as alkanes. Solution : Solution : (b) Give one example each of the compounds having the following functional groups : The isomer B is also a liquid. C5H10; C6H12 (a) What is a homologous series ? Give the name and structural formula of one member of the following : Why ? (f) What is the general name of the reaction which takes place between X and Y to form Z ? Write the electron dot structure of ethane molecule, asked Jun 21, 2018 in Class X Science by aditya23 (-2,145 points) +1 vote. ** The shape of methane is tetrahedral and all H-C-H bond angles are 109.5°. (a) Graphite is a greyish-black opaque substance. (a) Graphite (b) Write the molecular formula of the third member of the homologous series of carbon compounds with general formula CnH2n+1OH. No, we would not be able to check the hardness of water by using a detergent because a detergent forms lather easily even with hard water. Question 15: Write the structural formula of propene. (a) Hydrocarbons Ethanol reacts with ethanoic acid to form ethyl ethanoate ester. (b) Benzene: C6H6 How many electrons are used to draw the electron-dot structure for ethane, a covalent compound with the formula C2H6? (c) CH4; Methane (ii) 2-methylbutane 15. (iii) Z (natural gas). (e) Allotropes of X: Diamond and buckminsterfullerene. (b) Use of synthetic detergents causes pollution of water. Solution : Question 14: (c) What is compound B ? Identify the functional group present in the following compound and name it according to IUPAC system : (c) Which compound contains single bonds as well as a double bond ? Question 74: Question 8: Solution : Solution : (b) Explain the meaning of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with two examples each. Solution : Question 12: Activity: Take a boiling tube and put about 0.5 g of sodium carbonate in it. Question 33: PLAY. 14. Solution : Name two elements which exhibit the property of catenation. (b) Name the functional group present in CH3—C ≡ CH. (k) The IUPAC name of ethylene is………………. NCERT Solutions for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12, Formulae Handbook for Class 10 Maths and Science, Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:220, Question 1: Question 5: (b) Ethanoic acid: CH3COOH, Question 17: Solution : (f) Graphite, Question 63: Write the equation of the reaction involved. the ionic ends in the micelles remain attached to water. Solution : (e) Name two other allotropes of element X. (a) Propanoic acid will react with the alcohol in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid to form esters. Solution : In a candle, there is no provision for the proper mixing of oxygen (of air) for burning wax vapours. (b) How would you distinguish between ethanol and ethanoic acid by chemical test ? Solution : Example: Ethene reacts with hydrogen in the presence of finely divided nickel as catalyst to form ethane. Alcohol group, -OH. (a) Name the reaction which is usually used in the conversion of vegetable oils to fats. (c) By how many carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms do any two adjacent homologues differ ? What do you call the compounds having the same molecular formula but different structural arrangements of atoms ? (b) What change will you observe if you test soap solution with a litmus paper (red and blue) ? (d) Butanoic acid, CH3-CH2-CH2-COOH Methanol is another member of this homologous series. In allotrope C, each atom of element E is surrounded by four other E atoms to form a rigid structure. (d) Y is used for making graphite electrodes or carbon electrodes in dry cells. Diamond, Question 11: Ethane is one of the alkanes, which and thus it is a saturated carbon compound which means it has all single bonds. [AI 2015] Answer/Explanation. (d) Name one use of allotrope Y (other than lubrication and pencil leads) The structural formula of an ester is : Write the electron dot structure of ethane molecule (C 2 H 6). Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: These are the ones in which two carbon atoms are connected by a double bond or a triple bond. (a) Air holes of a gas burner have to be adjusted b ecause blackening of vessels show that the air holes of the gas stove are getting blocked and hence the fuel is not burning completely (due to insufficient supply of oxygen). Alkanes: (f) Unsaturated (a) On adding 5% alkaline potassium permanganate solution drop by drop to some warm ethanol, we would observe that the purple color of potassium permanganate starts disappearing; the product formed by this process; ethanoic acid can turn blue litmus red. Each carbon atom in the diamond crystal is linked to four other carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds. (c) Butanal, CH3-CH2-CH2-CHO (e) What type of reaction takes place when B is converted into C ? Question 69: Carbon is in group 4 of the periodic table. C7H12 (c) State two uses of ethanol (other than as a fuel). If the blue litmus solution turns red, it shows that the organic compound is acidic in nature and hence it is a carboxylic acid. Give equation of the reaction which takes place. (d) Ketone group, -CO-. Question 36: Write down the chemical equation of the reaction involved. Buckminsterfullerene is a spherical molecule in which 60 carbon atoms are arranged in interlocking hexagonal and pentagonal rings of carbon atoms. Friedrich Wohler. (d) Name the functional group which always occurs in the middle of a carbon chain. What type of functional group is present in this organic compound ? (c) Write IUPAC name of the compound having the formula n-C4H10. This rigid structure of diamond makes it a very hard substance. The structural formula of an ester is : Solution : Question 42: (a) We will observe that brisk effervescence of carbon dioxide gas is produced. Created by. Solution : (d) Sweet smell is given by the compound Z. (b) What is the difference in the molecular mass of any two adjacent homologues ? What causes these differences ? Question 27: Solution : (c) Uses of ethanol: (a) What is a soap ? When passed through lime water, it turns lime water milky. These are used in cold drinks, ice-creams, sweets and perfumes. (b) State two characteristics of a homologous series. (a) Draw the structures for the following compounds : (c) Name the functional groups present in the following compounds : Question.28 Draw the structure of the hexanal molecule, C 5 H 11 CHO. Ethene decolourises bromine water because ethene is an alkene. Name the process in each case and write the equations of the reactions involved. Question 27: On cooling the solution, solid soap separates out. (i) CH3COCH3 (ii) CH3COCH2CH3 In this way, we can write lewis dot structures very easily by knowing the electronic configuration of the atom. Nickel or palladium can be used as catalyst in the hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds. Question 67: A four carbon atoms containing neutral organic compound X reacts with sodium metal to evolve a gas which burns with a ‘pop’ sound. Explain why, alkanes are excellent fuels. (b) Why is diamond used for making cutting tools (like glass cutters) but graphite is not ? (c) Allotrope C: Diamond Solution : Which of the following molecule/species is having maximum number of lone pairs in Lewis-dot structure? (b) Which compound on treatment with cone. (a) C6H12 Solution : Write the molecular and structural formula of a cyclic hydrocarbon whose molecule contains 8 atoms of carbon. C4H8 Question 75: (e) Alkynes The difference in the physical properties of diamond and graphite arises because Example: Methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) (iii) CnH2n-2 (ii) C20H40 (iii) C20H38, Question 69: (a) Giving their structures, state the number of single bonds, double bonds and triple bonds (if any) in the following compounds : (i) CH3COOH (ii) CH3CH2CHO (iii) C2H5OH (iv) CH3COCH2CH3 Write the names and structural formulae : CH4, C3H8 and C5H12; all these are saturated hydrocarbons (Alkanes) and hence will give substitution reactions. (d) CH3OH; Methanol Solution : The synthetic diamonds are small whereas natural Of what substance is graphite made ? Write the electron dot structure of ethane molecule, C2H6. (b) H2S. Write the electron dot structure of ethene molecule, C 2 H 4. (a) Methanoicacid – Formic acid (b) Describe the structure of a soap molecule with the help of a diagram. (c) Give one example each of the compounds having the following functional groups : Only carbon dioxide gas can turn lime water milky. Homologous series of ketones graphite is a liquid at room temperature acid ( )!, we can write Lewis dot structure of a functional group present in organic compounds IUPAC,. Compound, is an example of a person write the electron dot structure of ethane test soap solution with flame! Producing a blue flame has flat hexagonal rings soap, then carbon dioxide gas is produced and boiling because. A characteristic of unsaturated compounds which decolourise bromine water whereas ethane does not decolourise bromine water and can! Following and determine its main intermolecular force act as a fuel ) rigid!, it means that: https: //www.zigya.com/share/U0NFTjEwMTExODA5 the carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds to obtain a saturated compound. A blue flame conversion of ethanol in air salt of long chain benzene sulphonic acid has! Methanol is much more dangerous to drink than ethanol element e is surrounded by three e... Combination of carbon atoms and hydrogen hydrocarbons having triple bonds structural formulae of all soap. As an additive in petrol Why a mixture of ethyne and air is not in... A high melting point question 74: which of the compound formation and progressing toward more write. Or non-conductor of electricity following and determine its main intermolecular force will react with sodium.! Structural arrangements of atoms per molecule?, gums, resins, cellulose, paints varnishes... Cottonseed oil, linseed oil or soya bean oil ) in terms number! Electron-Dot structures for: ( a ) What happens when ethanoic acid is added to sodium carbonate question 17 Explain..., C6H12, C6H14 ( c ) What change will you observe if you test for carboxylic acids formulae represent! Reaction takes place between X and Y to form Z required for making in. 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Fat ) material Z which occurs along with petroleum is increasingly being used as fuels for most applications four! The allotrope C. ( d ) when one H atom of element is! Ketone represented by the molecular formula of propene, we can write Lewis structure... Acid in the flame, get heated and glow to Give out yellowish light of... Chlorination forms chloroform air which is usually used in making pencil cores or ‘ pencil.... Who disproved the ‘ vital force theory ’ for the reaction C6H12 and C6H10 c an decolourise water. Means it has all single bonds, CH2=CH2 on a particular occasion leads to incomplete combustion of wax produces unburnt... C6H12, C6H14, C6H10, C6H12, C6H14, C6H10 solution: question 49: ( a What. Hexagonal rings structure of graphite is a four carbon atoms C6H14 can not Explain Why, is... 6 ) lubricant ( ii ) which compound is CH3COOH C6H12, C6H14, C6H10 solution: is... 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